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The stand-off between parliament and the supreme court continued until the July national elections, with legislation passed effectively removing the chief justice and subjecting the supreme court members to greater control by the legislature, as well as a series of other laws passed, for example limiting the age for a prime minister.

The confrontation reached a peak, with the Deputy Prime Minister entering the supreme court during a hearing, escorted by some police, ostensibly to arrest the Chief Justice.

There was strong pressure among some MPs to defer the national elections for a further six months to one year, although their powers to do that were highly questionable.

The parliament-elect prime minister and other cooler-headed MPs carried the votes for the writs for the new election to be issued, slightly late, but for the election itself to occur on time, thereby avoiding a continuation of the constitutional crisis.

The crisis was tense at times, but largely restricted to the political and legal fraternity, plus some police factions. The public and public service including most police and military stood back.

It was a period when, with increased telecommunication access and use of social media notably Facebook and mobile phones , the public and students played some part in helping maintain restraint and demanding the leadership to adhere to constitutional processes.

They insisted on having the elections so that the people could say who should be their legitimate representatives for the next five years.

Under a amendment, the leader of the party winning the largest number of seats in the election is invited by the governor-general to form the government, if he can muster the necessary majority in parliament.

The process of forming such a coalition in PNG, where parties do not have much ideology, involves considerable horsetrading right up until the last moment.

The unicameral Parliament enacts legislation in the same manner as in other Commonwealth realms that use the Westminster system of government.

The cabinet collectively agree government policy, then the relevant minister introduces bills to Parliament, depending on which government department is responsible for implementation of a particular law.

Back bench members of parliament can also introduce bills. Parliament debates bills, and if approved the bill is forwarded to the Governor-General for Royal assent, following which it becomes law.

All ordinary statutes enacted by Parliament must be consistent with the Constitution. The courts have jurisdiction to rule on the constitutionality of statutes, both in disputes before them and on a reference where there is no dispute but only an abstract question of law.

Unusually among developing countries, the judicial branch of government in Papua New Guinea has remained remarkably independent, and successive executive governments have continued to respect its authority.

The "underlying law" Papua New Guinea's common law consists of principles and rules of common law and equity in English [43] common law as it stood on 16 September the date of independence , and thereafter the decisions of PNG's own courts.

The courts are directed by the Constitution and, latterly, the Underlying Law Act , to take note of the "custom" of traditional communities.

They are to determine which customs are common to the whole country and may be declared also to be part of the underlying law. In practice, this has proved extremely difficult and has been largely neglected.

Statutes are largely adapted from overseas jurisdictions, primarily Australia and England. Advocacy in the courts follows the adversarial pattern of other common-law countries.

This national court system, used in towns and cities, is supported by a village court system in the more remote areas.

The law underpinning the village courts is 'customary law'. Papua New Guinea supported Indonesia 's control of Western New Guinea : [44] the focus of the Papua conflict where numerous human rights violations have reportedly been committed by the Indonesian security forces.

It consists of three wings. The Land Element, a land force consisting of the Royal Pacific Islands Regiment , a small special forces unit, a battalion of engineers, and three other small units primarily dealing with signals and health, as well as a military academy, is concerned with defence of the nation on land.

The Air Element is a small, underfunded aircraft squadron consisting of two utility aircraft, with another three on order, two leased helicopters, and two trainers once they are delivered.

Its present purpose is transportation for the other military wings. The Maritime Element is a small navy consisting of four Pacific-class patrol boats, three ex-Australian Balikpapan-class landing craft , and one Guardian-class patrol boat.

One of the landing craft is used as a training ship. Three more Guardian-class patrol boats are under construction in Australia, to replace the old Pacific-class vessels.

The main tasks of the Maritime Element are patrol of inshore waters and transport of the Land Element. Papua New Guinea has such a large Exclusive Economic Zone that patrols by the small Pacific-class patrol boats, which are often unserviceable due to underfunding, are ineffective, so the Maritime Element is heavily reliant on satellite imagery for surveillance of its waters.

This problem will be partially corrected when all of the larger Guardian-class patrol boats enter service. Papua New Guinea is often ranked as likely the worst place in the world for violence against women.

The Sorcery Act imposed a penalty of up to 2 years in prison for the practice of "black" magic , until the Act was repealed in Homosexual acts are prohibited by law in Papua New Guinea.

Papua New Guinea is divided into four regions , which are not the primary administrative divisions but are quite significant in many aspects of government, commercial, sporting and other activities.

The nation has 22 province -level divisions: twenty provinces, the Autonomous Region of Bougainville and the National Capital District.

Each province is divided into one or more districts , which in turn are divided into one or more Local-Level Government areas. Provinces [56] are the primary administrative divisions of the country.

Provincial governments are branches of the national government as Papua New Guinea is not a federation of provinces.

The province-level divisions are as follows:. In , Parliament approved the creation of two additional provinces: Hela Province , consisting of part of the existing Southern Highlands Province , and Jiwaka Province , formed by dividing Western Highlands Province.

The government set 23 November [60] as the voting date for a non-binding [61] independence referendum in the Bougainville autonomous region.

Located north of the Australian mainland, the country's geography is diverse and, in places, extremely rugged.

A spine of mountains, the New Guinea Highlands , runs the length of the island of New Guinea , forming a populous highlands region mostly covered with tropical rainforest , and the long Papuan Peninsula , known as the 'Bird's Tail'.

Dense rainforests can be found in the lowland and coastal areas as well as very large wetland areas surrounding the Sepik and Fly rivers.

This terrain has made it difficult for the country to develop transportation infrastructure. Some areas are accessible only on foot or by aeroplane.

Papua New Guinea is surrounded by coral reefs which are under close watch, in the interests of preservation. The country is situated on the Pacific Ring of Fire , at the point of collision of several tectonic plates.

There are a number of active volcanoes , and eruptions are frequent. Earthquakes are relatively common, sometimes accompanied by tsunamis.

The mainland of the country is the eastern half of New Guinea island, where the largest towns are also located, including Port Moresby capital and Lae ; other major islands within Papua New Guinea include New Ireland , New Britain , Manus and Bougainville.

Papua New Guinea is one of the few regions close to the equator that experience snowfall , which occurs in the most elevated parts of the mainland.

The border between Papua New Guinea and Indonesia was confirmed by treaty with Australia before independence in The maritime boundary with Australia was confirmed by a treaty in Maritime boundaries with the Solomon Islands were confirmed by a treaty.

Geologically, the island of New Guinea is a northern extension of the Indo-Australian tectonic plate , forming part of a single land mass which is Australia-New Guinea also called Sahul or Meganesia.

It is connected to the Australian segment by a shallow continental shelf across the Torres Strait , which in former ages lay exposed as a land bridge , particularly during ice ages when sea levels were lower than at present.

Consequently, many species of birds and mammals found on New Guinea have close genetic links with corresponding species found in Australia. One notable feature in common for the two landmasses is the existence of several species of marsupial mammals , including some kangaroos and possums , which are not found elsewhere.

Papua New Guinea is a megadiverse country. As a consequence, they have their own flora and fauna; in particular, they lack many of the land mammals and flightless birds that are common to New Guinea and Australia.

Australia and New Guinea are portions of the ancient supercontinent of Gondwana , which started to break into smaller continents in the Cretaceous period, 65— million years ago.

Australia finally broke free from Antarctica about 45 million years ago. All the Australasian lands are home to the Antarctic flora , descended from the flora of southern Gondwana, including the coniferous podocarps and Araucaria pines, and the broad-leafed southern beech Nothofagus.

These plant families are still present in Papua New Guinea. The Central Range is much younger and higher than the mountains of Australia, so high that it is home to rare equatorial glaciers.

New Guinea is part of the humid tropics, and many Indomalayan rainforest plants spread across the narrow straits from Asia, mixing together with the old Australian and Antarctic floras.

Three new species of mammals were discovered in the forests of Papua New Guinea by an Australian-led expedition.

A small wallaby, a large-eared mouse and shrew-like marsupial were discovered. The expedition was also successful in capturing photographs and video footage of some other rare animals such as the Tenkile tree kangaroo and the Weimang tree kangaroo.

At current rates of deforestation , more than half of Papua New Guinea's forests could be lost or seriously degraded by , according to a new satellite study of the region.

On 25 February , an earthquake of magnitude 7. As of 1 March there were 31 reported deaths, and that number was expected to rise.

Papua New Guinea is richly endowed with natural resources, including mineral and renewable resources, such as forests, marine including a large portion of the world's major tuna stocks , and in some parts agriculture.

The rugged terrain—including high mountain ranges and valleys, swamps and islands—and high cost of developing infrastructure, combined with other factors including serious law and order problems in some centres and the system of customary land title makes it difficult for outside developers.

Local developers are handicapped by years of deficient investment in education, health, ICT and access to finance.

Oil palm production has grown steadily over recent years largely from estates and with extensive outgrower output , with palm oil now the main agricultural export.

Former Prime Minister Sir Mekere Morauta tried to restore integrity to state institutions, stabilise the kina , restore stability to the national budget, privatise public enterprises where appropriate, and ensure ongoing peace on Bougainville following the agreement which ended Bougainville 's secessionist unrest.

The Morauta government had considerable success in attracting international support, specifically gaining the backing of the International Monetary Fund IMF and the World Bank in securing development assistance loans.

Significant challenges face Prime Minister Sir Michael Somare , including gaining further investor confidence, continuing efforts to privatise government assets, and maintaining the support of members of Parliament.

In March , the United Nations Development Programme Policy called for Papua New Guinea's designation of developing country to be downgraded to least-developed country because of protracted economic and social stagnation.

This economic growth has been primarily attributed to strong commodity prices, particularly mineral but also agricultural, with the high demand for mineral products largely sustained even during the crisis by the buoyant Asian markets, a booming mining sector and by a buoyant outlook and the construction phase for natural gas exploration, production, and exportation in liquefied form liquefied natural gas or "LNG" by LNG tankers LNG carrier , all of which will require multibillion-dollar investments exploration, production wells, pipelines, storage, liquefaction plants, port terminals, LNG tanker ships.

A second major project is based on initial rights held by the French oil and gas major Total S. IOC , which have partly combined their assets after Total agreed in December to purchase Total S.

Further gas and mineral projects are proposed including the large Wafi-Golpu copper-gold mine , with extensive exploration ongoing across the country.

The PNG government's long-term Vision and shorter-term policy documents, including the Budget and the Responsible Sustainable Development Strategy, emphasise the need for a more diverse economy, based upon sustainable industries and avoiding the effects of Dutch disease from major resource extraction projects undermining other industries, as has occurred in many countries experiencing oil or other mineral booms, notably in Western Africa, undermining much of their agriculture sector, manufacturing and tourism, and with them broad-based employment prospects.

Measures have been taken to mitigate these effects, including through the establishment of a sovereign wealth fund , partly to stabilise revenue and expenditure flows, but much will depend upon the readiness to make real reforms to effective use of revenue, tackling rampant corruption and empowering households and businesses to access markets, services and develop a more buoyant economy, with lower costs, especially for small to medium-size enterprises.

One major project conducted through the PNG Department for Community Development suggested that other pathways to sustainable development should be considered.

The Institute of National Affairs, a PNG independent policy think tank, provides a report on the business and investment environment of Papua New Guinea every five years, based upon a survey of large and small, local and overseas companies, highlighting law and order problems and corruption, as the worst impediments, followed by the poor state of transport, power and communications infrastructure.

The PNG legislature has enacted laws in which a type of tenure called " customary land title " is recognised, meaning that the traditional lands of the indigenous peoples have some legal basis to inalienable tenure.

Freehold title also known as fee simple can only be held by Papua New Guinean citizens. There is virtually no freehold title; the few existing freeholds are automatically converted to state lease when they are transferred between vendor and purchaser.

Unalienated land is owned under customary title by traditional landowners. The precise nature of the seisin varies from one culture to another.

Many writers portray land as in the communal ownership of traditional clans; however, closer studies usually show that the smallest portions of land whose ownership cannot be further divided are held by the individual heads of extended families and their descendants or their descendants alone if they have recently died.

This is a matter of vital importance because a problem of economic development is identifying the membership of customary landowning groups and the owners.

Disputes between mining and forestry companies and landowner groups often devolve on the issue of whether the companies entered into contractual relations for the use of land with the true owners.

Customary property—usually land—cannot be devised by will. It can only be inherited according to the custom of the deceased's people.

The Land Group Incorporation Act requires more specific identification of the customary landowners than hitherto and their more specific authorisation before any land arrangements are determined; a major issue in recent years has been a land grab, using, or rather misusing, the Lease-Leaseback provision under the Land Act, notably using 'Special Agricultural and Business Leases' SABLs to acquire vast tracts of customary land, purportedly for agricultural projects, but in an almost all cases as a back-door mechanism for securing tropical forest resources for logging—circumventing the more exacting requirements of the Forest Act, for securing Timber Permits which must comply with sustainability requirements and be competitively secured, and with the customary landowners approval.

Following a national outcry, these SABLs have been subject to a Commission of Inquiry, established in mid, for which the report is still awaited for initial presentation to the Prime Minister and Parliament.

Papua New Guinea is one of the most heterogeneous nations in the world. The other indigenous peoples are Austronesians , their ancestors having arrived in the region less than four thousand years ago.

There are also numerous people from other parts of the world now resident, including Chinese , [87] Europeans, Australians, Indonesians, Filipinos, Polynesians, and Micronesians the last four belonging to the Austronesian family.

The geography and economy of Papua New Guinea are the main factors behind the low percentage. Papua New Guinea has an urbanisation rate of 2.

According to Statista , here are the urban population percentages in Papua New Guinea from to The most widely spoken indigenous language is Enga , with about , speakers, followed by Melpa and Huli.

The primary lingua franca of the country is Tok Pisin commonly known in English as New Guinean Pidgin or Melanesian Pidgin , in which much of the debate in Parliament is conducted, many information campaigns and advertisements are presented, and a national weekly newspaper, Wantok , is published.

The only area where Tok Pisin is not prevalent is the southern region of Papua , where people often use the third official language, Hiri Motu.

Although it lies in the Papua region, Port Moresby has a highly diverse population which primarily uses Tok Pisin, and to a lesser extent English, with Motu spoken as the indigenous language in outlying villages.

With an average of only 7, speakers per language, Papua New Guinea has a greater density of languages than any other nation on earth except Vanuatu.

Life expectancy in Papua New Guinea at birth was 64 years for men in and 68 for women. Government expenditure health in accounted for 9. The maternal mortality rate per , births for Papua New Guinea was This is compared with The under-5 mortality rate, per 1, births is 69 and the neonatal mortality as a percentage of under-5s' mortality is In Papua New Guinea, the number of midwives per 1, live births is 1 and the lifetime risk of death for pregnant women is 1 in Citizen population in Papua New Guinea by religion, based on the census [].

The government and judiciary uphold the constitutional right to freedom of speech, thought, and belief, and no legislation to curb those rights has been adopted.

The census found that Virtually no respondent identified as being nonreligious. Religious syncretism is high, with many citizens combining their Christian faith with some traditional indigenous religious practices.

There are approximately 2, Muslims in the country. The majority belong to the Sunni group, while a small number are Ahmadi.

Non-traditional Christian churches and non-Christian religious groups are active throughout the country. Traditional religions are often animist. Some also tend to have elements of veneration of the dead , though generalisation is suspect given the extreme heterogeneity of Melanesian societies.

Prevalent among traditional tribes is the belief in masalai , or evil spirits, which are blamed for "poisoning" people, causing calamity and death, and the practice of puripuri sorcery.

It is estimated that more than a thousand cultural groups exist in Papua New Guinea. Because of this diversity, many styles of cultural expression have emerged.

Each group has created its own expressive forms in art, dance, weaponry, costumes, singing, music, architecture and much more.

Most of these cultural groups have their own language. People typically live in villages that rely on subsistence farming.

In some areas people hunt and collect wild plants such as yam roots and karuka to supplement their diets. Those who become skilled at hunting, farming and fishing earn a great deal of respect.

On the Sepik river, there is a tradition of wood carving , often in the form of plants or animals, representing ancestor spirits. Seashells are no longer the currency of Papua New Guinea, as they were in some regions—sea shells were abolished as currency in This tradition is still present in local customs.

In some cultures, to get a bride, a groom must bring a certain number of golden-edged clam shells [] as a bride price. In other regions, the bride price is paid in lengths of shell money , pigs, cassowaries or cash.

Elsewhere, it is brides who traditionally pay a dowry. People of the highlands engage in colourful local rituals that are called "sing sings".

They paint themselves and dress up with feathers , pearls and animal skins to represent birds, trees or mountain spirits. Sometimes an important event, such as a legendary battle, is enacted at such a musical festival.

The country, however, has no elements inscribed yet in the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists , despite having one of the widest array of intangible cultural heritage elements in the world.

Binary transparency without any workarounds! Only Microsoft Edge does not support the format yet. Apple added animated stickers to iMessage with the release of iOS If you want to create and compress stickers under KB take a look at the iMessage Panda sticker example on Github.

With other versions it is impossible and Photoshop CS5 cannot even display them properly. We frequently use PNG images, but were frustrated with the load times.

We created TinyPNG in our quest to make our own websites faster and more fun to use with the best compression. Compressing images with the website is free for everyone and we like to keep it that way!

If you like TinyPNG please contribute by making a donation. We have not tried it out in other browsers. PNG images are less widely supported by older browsers.

The JPEG Joint Photographic Experts Group format can produce a smaller file than PNG for photographic and photo-like images, since JPEG uses a lossy encoding method specifically designed for photographic image data, which is typically dominated by soft, low-contrast transitions, and an amount of noise or similar irregular structures.

In comparison, when storing images that contain text, line art, or graphics — images with sharp transitions and large areas of solid color — the PNG format can compress image data more than JPEG can.

Such artifacts depend on the settings used in the JPG compression; they can be quite noticeable when a low-quality [high-compression] setting is used.

Where an image contains both sharp transitions and photographic parts, a choice must be made between the two effects.

JPEG does not support transparency. JPEG's lossy compression also suffers from generation loss , where repeatedly decoding and re-encoding an image to save it again causes a loss of information each time, degrading the image.

This does not happen with repeated viewing or copying, but only if the file is edited and saved over again. Because PNG is lossless, it is suitable for storing images to be edited.

While PNG is reasonably efficient when compressing photographic images, there are lossless compression formats designed specifically for photographic images, lossless WebP and Adobe DNG digital negative for example.

However these formats are either not widely supported, or are proprietary. An image can be stored losslessly and converted to JPEG format only for distribution, so that there is no generation loss.

While the PNG specification does not explicitly include a standard for embedding Exif image data from sources such as digital cameras, the preferred method for embedding EXIF data in a PNG is to use the non-critical ancillary chunk label eXIf.

JPEG was commonly used when exporting images containing gradients for web pages, because of GIF's limited color depth. However, JPEG compression causes a gradient to blur slightly.

A PNG format reproduces a gradient as accurately as possible for a given bit depth, while keeping the file size small. PNG became the optimal choice for small gradient images as web browser support for the format improved.

No images at all are needed to display gradients in modern browsers, as gradients can be created using CSS. It is directly comparable with PNG, [ clarification needed ] and has a standard set of test images.

While this makes TIFF useful as a generic format for interchange between professional image editing applications, it makes adding support for it to applications a much bigger task and so it has little support in applications not concerned with image manipulation such as web browsers.

The high level of extensibility also means that most applications provide only a subset of possible features, potentially creating user confusion and compatibility issues.

This compression technique, also used in GIF, was covered by patents until Compression Tag 16 ' Adobe -style' with medium usage and support by applications.

The official reference implementation of the PNG format is the programming library libpng. Therefore, it is usually found as an important system library in free operating systems.

Adobe Fireworks formerly by Macromedia uses PNG as its native file format, allowing other image editors and preview utilities to view the flattened image.

However, Fireworks by default also stores metadata for layers, animation, vector data, text and effects.

Such files should not be distributed directly. Fireworks can instead export the image as an optimized PNG without the extra metadata for use on web pages, etc.

PNG support first appeared in Internet Explorer 4. For the complete comparison, see Comparison of web browsers Image format support. Especially versions of Internet Explorer Windows below 9.

In addition, Android makes extensive use of PNGs. PNG file size can vary significantly depending on how it is encoded and compressed; this is discussed and a number of tips are given in PNG: The Definitive Guide.

There is thus a filesize trade-off between high color depth, maximal metadata including color space information, together with information that does not affect display , interlacing, and speed of compression, which all yield large files, with lower color depth, fewer or no ancillary chunks, no interlacing, and tuned but computationally intensive filtering and compression.

For different purposes, different trade-offs are chosen: a maximal file may be best for archiving and editing, while a stripped down file may be best for use on a website, and similarly fast but poor compression is preferred when repeatedly editing and saving a file, while slow but high compression is preferred when a file is stable: when archiving or posting.

Interlacing is a trade-off: it dramatically speeds up early rendering of large files improves latency , but may increase file size decrease throughput for little gain, particularly for small files.

For example, quantizing a truecolor PNG to colors allows the indexed color type to be used for a likely reduction in file size.

Some programs are more efficient than others when saving PNG files, this relates to implementation of the PNG compression used by the program.

Many graphics programs such as Apple's Preview software save PNGs with large amounts of metadata and color-correction data that are generally unnecessary for Web viewing.

Unoptimized PNG files from Adobe Fireworks are also notorious for this since they contain options to make the image editable in supported editors.

Adobe's Fireworks saves larger PNG files than many programs by default. This stems from the mechanics of its Save format: the images produced by Fireworks' save function include large, private chunks, containing complete layer and vector information.

This allows further lossless editing. When saved with the Export option, Fireworks' PNGs are competitive with those produced by other image editors, but are no longer editable as anything but flattened bitmaps.

Fireworks is unable to save size-optimized vector-editable PNGs. Poor compression increases the PNG file size but does not affect the image quality or compatibility of the file with other programs.

When the color depth of a truecolor image is reduced to an 8-bit palette as in GIF , the resulting image data is typically much smaller.

Conversely, some tools, when saving images as PNGs, automatically save them as truecolor, even if the original data use only 8-bit color, thus bloating the file unnecessarily.

Before zopflipng was available, a good way in practice to perform a png optimization is to use a combination of 2 tools in sequence for optimal compression: one which optimizes filters and removes ancillary chunks , and one which optimizes DEFLATE.

Although pngout offers both, only one type of filter can be specified in a single run, therefore it can be used with a wrapper tool or in combination with optipng or pngcrush , [note 2] acting as a re-deflater, like advdef.

This often results in much smaller file sizes. For example, the following command line options achieve this with pngcrush:.

OptiPNG, pngcrush, pngout, and zopflipng all offer options applying one of the filter types 0—4 globally using the same filter type for all lines or with a "pseudo filter" numbered 5 , which for each line chooses one of the filter types 0—4 using an adaptive algorithm.

Zopflipng offers 3 different adaptive method, including a brute-force search that attempts to optimize the filtering.

OptiPNG, pngcrush and zopflipng provide options to try different filter strategies in a single run and choose the best.

The freeware command line version of pngout doesn't offer this, but the commercial version, pngoutwin, does.

By contrast, advdef from the same package doesn't deal with PNG structure and acts only as a re-deflater, retaining any existing filter settings.

Since icons intended for Windows Vista and later versions may contain PNG subimages, the optimizations can be applied to them as well.

At least one icon editor , Pixelformer , is able to perform a special optimization pass while saving ICO files, thereby reducing their sizes.

FileOptimizer mentioned above can also handle ICO files. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Family of lossless compression file formats for image files.

A PNG image with an 8-bit transparency channel, overlaid onto a checkered background, typically used in graphics software to indicate transparency.

Main article: Comparison of graphics file formats. Main article: Comparison of raster graphics editors. Main article: Web browser image format support.

However, there is theoretically no formula for similarity, nor absolute relationship between the similarity and compressor, thus unless the compression is done, one can't tell one filter set is better than another.

See Zopfli , zip format in 7-zip and pngout. Retrieved 19 February

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Other major sports which have a part in the Papua New Guinea sporting landscape are association football , rugby union , basketball and, in eastern Papua, cricket.

The capital city, Port Moresby, hosted the Pacific Games in A large proportion of the population is illiterate , [] with women predominating in this area.

The four other universities which were once colleges were established recently after gaining government recognition.

Papua New Guinea's National Vision was adopted in This has led to the establishment of the Research, Science and Technology Council.

At its gathering in November , the Council re-emphasised the need to focus on sustainable development through science and technology.

Vision 's medium-term priorities are: []. Nine out of ten scientific publications from Papua New Guinea focused on immunology, genetics, biotechnology and microbiology.

Nine out of ten were also co-authored by scientists from other countries, mainly Australia, the United States of America, United Kingdom, Spain and Switzerland.

Forestry is an important economic resource for Papua New Guinea but the industry uses low and semi-intensive technological inputs.

As a result, product ranges are limited to sawed timber, veneer, plywood, block board, moulding, poles and posts and wood chips. Only a few limited finished products are exported.

Lack of automated machinery, coupled with inadequately trained local technical personnel, are some of the obstacles to introducing automated machinery and design.

Policy-makers need to turn their attention to eliminating these barriers, in order for forestry to make a more efficient and sustainable contribution to national economic development.

In Papua New Guinea, renewable energy sources represent two-thirds of the total electricity supply. Since its inception in , the programme has developed a master's programme in renewable energy management at the University of Papua New Guinea and helped to establish a Centre of Renewable Energy at the same university.

The programme resulted from the signing of an agreement in February between the European Union and the Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat.

Transport in Papua New Guinea is heavily limited by the country's mountainous terrain. Airplanes made it possible to open up the country during its early colonial period.

Even today the two largest cities, Port Moresby and Lae , are only directly connected by planes. Port Moresby is not linked by road to any of the other major towns, and many remote villages can only be reached by light aircraft or on foot.

In addition to two international airfields, Papua New Guinea has airstrips, most of which are unpaved. This article incorporates text from a free content work.

To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see this how-to page. For information on reusing text from Wikipedia , please see the terms of use.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Country in the western Pacific. National emblem. Main article: History of Papua New Guinea. Main article: Politics of Papua New Guinea.

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. October Main article: Law of Papua New Guinea.

Main article: Foreign relations of Papua New Guinea. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. March Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Human rights in Papua New Guinea.

See also: Sexual violence in Papua New Guinea. Main article: Geography of Papua New Guinea. Map of Papua New Guinea.

Main article: Environmental issues in Papua New Guinea. Main article: Papua New Guinea earthquake. Main article: Economy of Papua New Guinea.

Main article: Demographics of Papua New Guinea. Largest cities and towns in Papua New Guinea www. Main article: Languages of Papua New Guinea.

Main article: Health in Papua New Guinea. Main article: Religion in Papua New Guinea. Seventh-day Adventist Pentecostal Evangelical Alliance Papua New Guinea 5.

Anglican Church of Papua New Guinea 3. Baptist 2. Salvation Army 0. Kwato Church 0. Other Christian 5. Non Christian 1. Not stated 3. Main article: Sport in Papua New Guinea.

Main article: Education in Papua New Guinea. Main article: Transport in Papua New Guinea. Archived from the original on 28 June Retrieved 9 August The National.

Archived from the original on 13 July Retrieved 19 January The World Factbook. Langley, Virginia: Central Intelligence Agency.

Retrieved 5 October Radio New Zealand. Kele, Roko. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 23 February World Bank.

United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 9 December Archived from the original on 7 December Retrieved 10 August Retrieved 19 July Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

The Independent. Retrieved 26 March Database updated on 6 October Accessed on 6 October Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade.

Archived from the original on 11 February Retrieved 27 July Retrieved 24 August World Development Indicators. Washington DC. Pacific Islands Legal Information Institute.

Retrieved 16 July Archived from the original on 7 March Tuttle Publishing. March University of Michigan Press.

National Geographic News. The Anthropology of Cannibalism. Greenwood Publishing Group. QnA ". Archived from the original on 5 July CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown link.

Australian War Memorial. Radio Australia. The Guardian. Retrieved 12 December The Australian. Retrieved 30 June Elizabeth: A Biography of Britain's Queen.

Riverhead Books. University of Sydney. Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 12 February Retrieved 17 January The Lancet.

Retrieved 26 February Archived from the original PDF on 27 August Retrieved 18 May BBC News. Vice News. The Washington Post 14 June Several provinces have changed their names; such changes are not strictly speaking official without a formal constitutional amendment, though "Oro," for example, is universally used in reference to that province.

Archived from the original on 16 June The National Papua New Guinea. Papua New Guinea Post-Courier. Retrieved 23 September Retrieved 2 March Retrieved 19 April Documents and Correspondence on New Guinea's Boundaries.

ABC News. CBC News. SBS News. Sydney, NSW. Retrieved 23 April Overcoming economic vulnerability and creating employment. Committee for Development Policy.

Retrieved 24 December Inside Investor. Retrieved 1 April Retrieved 13 January The Economist. Queensland University of Technology.

Retrieved 15 July Archived from the original PDF on 25 September Retrieved 28 August Retrieved 9 November Journal of Economic Growth. Archived from the original PDF on 12 May Such artifacts depend on the settings used in the JPG compression; they can be quite noticeable when a low-quality [high-compression] setting is used.

Where an image contains both sharp transitions and photographic parts, a choice must be made between the two effects.

JPEG does not support transparency. JPEG's lossy compression also suffers from generation loss , where repeatedly decoding and re-encoding an image to save it again causes a loss of information each time, degrading the image.

This does not happen with repeated viewing or copying, but only if the file is edited and saved over again. Because PNG is lossless, it is suitable for storing images to be edited.

While PNG is reasonably efficient when compressing photographic images, there are lossless compression formats designed specifically for photographic images, lossless WebP and Adobe DNG digital negative for example.

However these formats are either not widely supported, or are proprietary. An image can be stored losslessly and converted to JPEG format only for distribution, so that there is no generation loss.

While the PNG specification does not explicitly include a standard for embedding Exif image data from sources such as digital cameras, the preferred method for embedding EXIF data in a PNG is to use the non-critical ancillary chunk label eXIf.

JPEG was commonly used when exporting images containing gradients for web pages, because of GIF's limited color depth. However, JPEG compression causes a gradient to blur slightly.

A PNG format reproduces a gradient as accurately as possible for a given bit depth, while keeping the file size small. PNG became the optimal choice for small gradient images as web browser support for the format improved.

No images at all are needed to display gradients in modern browsers, as gradients can be created using CSS. It is directly comparable with PNG, [ clarification needed ] and has a standard set of test images.

While this makes TIFF useful as a generic format for interchange between professional image editing applications, it makes adding support for it to applications a much bigger task and so it has little support in applications not concerned with image manipulation such as web browsers.

The high level of extensibility also means that most applications provide only a subset of possible features, potentially creating user confusion and compatibility issues.

This compression technique, also used in GIF, was covered by patents until Compression Tag 16 ' Adobe -style' with medium usage and support by applications.

The official reference implementation of the PNG format is the programming library libpng. Therefore, it is usually found as an important system library in free operating systems.

Adobe Fireworks formerly by Macromedia uses PNG as its native file format, allowing other image editors and preview utilities to view the flattened image.

However, Fireworks by default also stores metadata for layers, animation, vector data, text and effects. Such files should not be distributed directly.

Fireworks can instead export the image as an optimized PNG without the extra metadata for use on web pages, etc.

PNG support first appeared in Internet Explorer 4. For the complete comparison, see Comparison of web browsers Image format support.

Especially versions of Internet Explorer Windows below 9. In addition, Android makes extensive use of PNGs. PNG file size can vary significantly depending on how it is encoded and compressed; this is discussed and a number of tips are given in PNG: The Definitive Guide.

There is thus a filesize trade-off between high color depth, maximal metadata including color space information, together with information that does not affect display , interlacing, and speed of compression, which all yield large files, with lower color depth, fewer or no ancillary chunks, no interlacing, and tuned but computationally intensive filtering and compression.

For different purposes, different trade-offs are chosen: a maximal file may be best for archiving and editing, while a stripped down file may be best for use on a website, and similarly fast but poor compression is preferred when repeatedly editing and saving a file, while slow but high compression is preferred when a file is stable: when archiving or posting.

Interlacing is a trade-off: it dramatically speeds up early rendering of large files improves latency , but may increase file size decrease throughput for little gain, particularly for small files.

For example, quantizing a truecolor PNG to colors allows the indexed color type to be used for a likely reduction in file size.

Some programs are more efficient than others when saving PNG files, this relates to implementation of the PNG compression used by the program. Many graphics programs such as Apple's Preview software save PNGs with large amounts of metadata and color-correction data that are generally unnecessary for Web viewing.

Unoptimized PNG files from Adobe Fireworks are also notorious for this since they contain options to make the image editable in supported editors.

Adobe's Fireworks saves larger PNG files than many programs by default. This stems from the mechanics of its Save format: the images produced by Fireworks' save function include large, private chunks, containing complete layer and vector information.

This allows further lossless editing. When saved with the Export option, Fireworks' PNGs are competitive with those produced by other image editors, but are no longer editable as anything but flattened bitmaps.

Fireworks is unable to save size-optimized vector-editable PNGs. Poor compression increases the PNG file size but does not affect the image quality or compatibility of the file with other programs.

When the color depth of a truecolor image is reduced to an 8-bit palette as in GIF , the resulting image data is typically much smaller.

Conversely, some tools, when saving images as PNGs, automatically save them as truecolor, even if the original data use only 8-bit color, thus bloating the file unnecessarily.

Before zopflipng was available, a good way in practice to perform a png optimization is to use a combination of 2 tools in sequence for optimal compression: one which optimizes filters and removes ancillary chunks , and one which optimizes DEFLATE.

Although pngout offers both, only one type of filter can be specified in a single run, therefore it can be used with a wrapper tool or in combination with optipng or pngcrush , [note 2] acting as a re-deflater, like advdef.

This often results in much smaller file sizes. For example, the following command line options achieve this with pngcrush:. OptiPNG, pngcrush, pngout, and zopflipng all offer options applying one of the filter types 0—4 globally using the same filter type for all lines or with a "pseudo filter" numbered 5 , which for each line chooses one of the filter types 0—4 using an adaptive algorithm.

Zopflipng offers 3 different adaptive method, including a brute-force search that attempts to optimize the filtering.

OptiPNG, pngcrush and zopflipng provide options to try different filter strategies in a single run and choose the best. The freeware command line version of pngout doesn't offer this, but the commercial version, pngoutwin, does.

By contrast, advdef from the same package doesn't deal with PNG structure and acts only as a re-deflater, retaining any existing filter settings. Since icons intended for Windows Vista and later versions may contain PNG subimages, the optimizations can be applied to them as well.

At least one icon editor , Pixelformer , is able to perform a special optimization pass while saving ICO files, thereby reducing their sizes.

FileOptimizer mentioned above can also handle ICO files. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Family of lossless compression file formats for image files.

A PNG image with an 8-bit transparency channel, overlaid onto a checkered background, typically used in graphics software to indicate transparency.

Main article: Comparison of graphics file formats. Main article: Comparison of raster graphics editors. Main article: Web browser image format support.

However, there is theoretically no formula for similarity, nor absolute relationship between the similarity and compressor, thus unless the compression is done, one can't tell one filter set is better than another.

See Zopfli , zip format in 7-zip and pngout. Retrieved 19 February Retrieved 20 October Oxford Learner's Dictionaries. Retrieved 21 January

Kurzbeschreibungen Deutsch Ergänze eine einzeilige Erklärung, was Werbe Sms Datei darstellt. Beschreibung Beschreibung Mh winkerflaggenalphabet n. Was linkt hierher? In dieser Datei abgebildete Objekte Motiv. English: Letter N of the nautical semaphore flag signalling system. Beschreibung Kernkraftwerk Druckwasserreaktor n. Oktober [[Category:Nu1. Diese Datei Beste Spielothek in Weichau finden weitere Informationen beispielsweise Exif-Metadatendie in der Regel von der Digitalkamera oder dem verwendeten Scanner stammen. Die nachfolgenden anderen Wikis Hearts Online Kostenlos diese Datei: Verwendung N Png de. Diese Angaben dürfen in jeder angemessenen Art und Weise gemacht werden, allerdings nicht so, dass der Eindruck entsteht, Cas Online Rechner Lizenzgeber unterstütze gerade dich oder deine Nutzung besonders. Horizontale Auflösung 59,06 dpc Vertikale Auflösung 59,06 dpc Speicherzeitpunkt

5 thoughts on “N Png”

  1. Es ist schade, dass ich mich jetzt nicht aussprechen kann - es gibt keine freie Zeit. Ich werde befreit werden - unbedingt werde ich die Meinung in dieser Frage aussprechen.

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  2. Es ist schade, dass ich mich jetzt nicht aussprechen kann - ist erzwungen, wegzugehen. Aber ich werde befreit werden - unbedingt werde ich schreiben dass ich in dieser Frage denke.

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